Toxic Plants and Their Effects

Abrus precatorius (CRAB'S EYE, JEQUIRITY BEAN, PRECATORY BEAN, ROSARY PEA); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.

Acacia spp. (CATCLAW, GUAJILLO); foliage; plant is cyanogenetic.

ACKEE (Blighia sapida); pink raphe attaching aril2 to seed, arils in immature fruit; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by toxins.

Acokanthera spp. (BUSHMAN'S POISON, WINTERSWEET); seeds; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.

ACONITE (Aconitum spp.); entire plant, esp. leaves and roots; cardiovascular system affected by alkaloid toxins.

Aconitum spp. (ACONITE, MONKSHOOD); entire plant, esp. leaves and roots; cardiovascular system affected by alkaloid toxins.

Actaea spp. (BANEBERRY, DOLL'S EYES); foliage, berries, roots; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by the toxin protoanemonin.

Adenium spp. (DESERT ROSE, MOCK AZALEA); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by digitalis-like glycosides.

Adonis spp. (PHEASANT'S EYE); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.

Aesculus spp. (BUCKEYES, HORSE CHESTNUT); nuts, immature growths; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

Aethusa cynapium (FOOL'S PARSLEY, LESSER HEMLOCK); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins.

Agave lecheguilla (LECHUGUILLA); plant is hepatogenic.

Agrostemma githago (CORNCOCKLE, PURPLECOCKLE); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

Aleurites spp. (CANDLEBERRY, CANDLENUT, TUNG3 NUT, TUNG TREE); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins and toxalbumins.

Allamanda cathartica (ALLAMANDA, CANARIO, GOLDEN TRUMPET VINE, YELLOW ALLAMANDA); bark, leaves, fruit, seeds, sap; plant contains cathartic toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.

Allium spp. (CHIVES, GARLIC, LEEKS, ONIONS); bulbs, bulblets, flowers, stems; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins.

Alocasia spp. (ELEPHANT'S EAR, TARO); leaves, stems; mouth irritated by plant raphides.

AMARANTH (Amaranthus hybridus); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Amaranthus hybridus (AMARANTH, CARELESS WEED, TUMBLEWEED); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Amaryllis spp. (AMARYLLIS, NAKED-LADY LILLY); bulbs; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins.

Amianthemum muscaetoxicum (FLY-POISON, STAGGERGRASS); leaves, underground parts of plant; alkaloid toxins may cause respiratory failure.

Ammi majus (BISHOP'S WEED); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Amsinckia intermedia (FIDDLENECK, TARWEED); seed-like nutlets; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Anemone spp. (includes Pulsatilla spp.) (ANEMONE, PASQUE FLOWER, WINDFLOWER); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin protoanemonin; plant also causes dermatitis.

ANGEL TRUMPET TREE (Brugmansia x candida); entire plant, esp. seeds; nervous system affected by belladonna alkaloids; plant contains hallucinogens.

Aplopappus spp. (GOLDENRODS, JIMMY WEED, RAYLESS); leaves; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Apocynum spp. (DOGBANE, INDIAN HEMP, SPREADING DOGBANE); leaves; plant contains cardiac glycosides.

APPLES (Malus spp.); seeds; plant is cyanogenetic.

APRICOTS (Prunus spp.); seeds; plant is cyanogenetic.

Aquilegia vulgaris (COLUMBINE); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by plant toxins.

Areca catechu (ARECA PALM, BETEL NUT); entire plant.

ARECA PALM (Areca catechu); entire plant.

Argemone spp. (MEXICAN POPPY, PRICKLY POPPY); entire plant; isoquinoline alkaloid causes "epidemic dropsy" in humans.

Arisaema spp. (GREEN DRAGON, INDIAN TURNIP, JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; mouth irritated by plant raphides; plant also causes dermatitis.

Arnica Montana (ARNICA); rhizomes, flowers; gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.

ARROWGRASS (Triglochim maritima); leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.

Arum spp. (CUCKOO-PINT, ITALIAN ARUM, LORDS & LADIES); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; mouth irritated by plant raphides; plant also causes dermatitis.

Asclepias spp. (MILKWEEDS, WHORLED BUTTERFLY); leaves, stems; plant contains toxic resins.

Astragalus (LOCOWEEDS, POISON-VETCHES); entire plant; plant may absorb toxic levels of selenium.

Atropa belladonna (BELLADONNA, DEADLY NIGHTSHADE); entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloids jasciamine, atropine, and belladonnin.

AUTUMN CROCUS (Colchicum autumnale, other Colchicum spp.); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin colchicine and other alkaloids; plant also causes dermatitis.

Avena sativa (OATS); plant is nontoxic unless contaminated with smut or fungi.

AZALEAS (Rhododendron spp.); leaves, nectar; cardiovascular system affected by the resinoid andromedotoxin.

 


BAGPOD (Sesbania spp.); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

Bahia oppositifolia (BAHIA); entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic.

BALSAM APPLE (Momordica balsamina); outer rind of ripe fruit, seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.

BALSAM PEAR (Momordica charantia); outer rind of ripe fruit, seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.

BANEBERRY (Actaea spp.); berries, roots; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by the toxin protoanemonin.

BARILLA (Halogeton glomeratus); leaves, stems; plant contains soluble oxalates.

BARNYARD GRASS (Echinochloa crusgalli); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

BEAD TREE (Melia azedarach); fruit, bark; plant contains convulsants.

BEGGAR-TICK (Bidens frondosa); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

BELLADONNA (Atropa belladonna); entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloids jasciamine, atropine, and belladonnin.

BELLYACHE BUSH (Jatropha gossypiifolia); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins and cathartic oils; plant also causes dermatitis.

BERMUDA BUTTERCUP, BERMUDA OXALIS (Oxalis pes-caprae); leaves; plant contains soluble oxalates.

Beta vulgaris (MANGOLD, SUGAR BEET); leaves; plant contains soluble oxalates and may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Bidens frondosa (BEGGAR-TICK); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

BINDWEED (Ipomea spp.); entire plant; plant contains LSD-related hallucinogens and may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

BIRD-OF-PARADISE (Caesalpinia gilliesii); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins.

BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL (Lotus corniculatus); entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic.

BISHOP'S WEED (Ammi majus); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

BITTER GOURD (Momordica charantia); outer rind of ripe fruit, seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.

BITTERSWEET (Celastrus scandens; do not confuse with Solanum dulcamara); entire plant; plant is reputed to be toxic.

BITTERWEED (Helenium spp.); plant causes dermatitis.

BLACK BRUSH (Flourensia cernua); fruit; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins.

BLACK BRYONY (Tamus communis); toxic principles similar to Bryonia dioica.

BLACK LOCUST (Robinia pseudoacacia); bark, seeds, leaves; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.

BLACK NIGHTSHADE (Solanum nigrum); leaves, berries; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanin glycoalkaloids; plant also causes dermatitis.

BLEEDING HEART (Dicentraformosa); entire plant, esp. bulbs; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline; plant also causes dermatitis.

Blighia sapida (ACKEE); pink raphe1 attaching aril2 to seed, arils in immature fruit; toxins affect gastrointestinal tract and nervous system.

BLOODROOT (Sanguinaria canadensis); juices from stems and rootstocks cause dermatitis.

BLUEBONNETS (Litpinus subcarnosus); leaves, esp. seeds; plant contains numerous alkaloid toxins including quinolizidine and piperidine.

BLUE RUSH (Juncus inflexus); plant causes convulsions in cattle.

BLUE TARO (Xanthosoma spp.); leaves; mouth irritated by plant raphides; plant also causes dermatitis.

BOUNCING BET (Saponaria officinalis); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

BOX, BOXWOOD (Buxus sempervirens); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.

BRACKEN FERN, BRAKE FERN (Pteridium sp.); fronds; plant contains thiaminase.

Brassica spp. (CABBAGE, KALE, MUSTARD); leaves; plant is goitrogenic; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; B. napus (CULTIVATED RAPE) is hepatogenic.

Bromus spp. (RESCUE GRASS, SMOOTH BROMEGRASS); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

BROOMCORN (Sorghum sp.); leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.

Brugmansia x candida (ANGEL TRUMPET TREE); entire plant, esp. seeds; nervous system affected by belladonna alkaloids; plant contains hallucinogens.

Bryonia dioica (DEVIL'S TURNIP, WHITE BRYONY); gastrointestinal tract affected by the glycosides bryonin and bryonidin; plant also causes dermatitis.

BUCKEYES (Aesculus spp.); nuts, immature growths; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

BUCKTHORN (Karwinskia humboldtiana - do not confuse with the mildly toxic Rhamnus spp.); fruit; toxins affect nervous system.

BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrum esculentum); plant causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis.

BUFFALO BUR (Solanum sp.); immature growths; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates; also causes dermatitis.

BULL NETTLE (Solanum sp.); immature growths; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates; also causes dermatitis.

BUNCH-GRASS (Nolina texana); foliage; hepatogenic.

BUR CLOVER (Medicago denticulata); plant causes photosensitization.

BURNING BUSH (Euonymus spp.); fruit; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides evobioside, evomonoside, and evonoside.

BUSHMAN'S POISON (Acokanthera spp.); seeds; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.

BUTTERCUPS (Ranunculus spp.); sap; toxin, protoanemonin, affects gastrointestinal tract and nervous system; plant also causes dermatitis.

BUTTONBUSH (Cephalanthus occidentalis); entire plant, esp. leaves.

Buxus sempervirens (BOX, BOXWOOD); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.

 


CABBAGE (Brassica sp.); leaves; plant is goitrogenic.

CACTI (numerous genera); certain species are toxic.

Caesalpina gilliesii (BIRD-OF-PARADISE); seeds: gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins.

Caladium spp. (CALADIUM, also see Xanthosoma spp.); leaves; mouth irritated by plant raphides.

CALEY PEA (Lathyrus spp.); stems, seeds; nervous system affected by plant toxins.

CALICO BUSH (Kalmia sp.); leaves, nectar; gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular and nervous systems affected by the toxins andromedotoxin and arbutin.

CALIFORNIA CHICORY (Rafinesquia californica).: plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

CALLA LILY (Zantedeschia aethiopica); leaves; mouth irritated by plant raphides.

Calotropis spp. (CROWN FLOWER); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.

Caltha palustris (COWSLIP, MARSH MARIGOLD); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin protoanemonin; plant also causes dermatitis.

CALTROP (Tribulus terrestris); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant is also hepatogenic.

CALYCANTH (Calycanffius spp.); seeds; cardiovascular and nervous systems affected by plant toxins.

Calycanthus spp. (CALYCANTH, CAROLINA ALLSPICE); seeds; cardiovascular and nervous systems affected by plant toxins.

Campsis spp. (TRUMPET VINE); plant causes dermatitis.

CANADA THISTLE (Cirsium arvense); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

CANARIO (Allamanda cathartica); bark, leaves, fruit, seeds, sap; plant contains cathartic toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.

CANDLEBERRY, CANDLENUT (Aleurites molluccana); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins and toxalbumins.

Cannabis sativa (MARIJUANA); leaves, flower bracts; plant contains the hallucinogens tetrahydro-cannabinols.

CARDINAL FLOWER (Lobelia spp.); leaves, stems, fruit; nervous system affected by the toxin pyridine; plant also causes dermatitis.

Carduus sp. (PLUMELESS THISTLE); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

CARELESS WEED (Amaranthus hybridus); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

CAROLINA ALLSPICE (Calycanthus spp.); seeds; cardiovascular and nervous systems affected by plant toxins.

CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta); leaves, esp. roots; plant is cyanogenetic.

Cassia spp. (COFFEE SENNA, GOLDEN SHOWER, INDIGO, SENNA, SICKLE POD); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.

CASTOR BEAN (Ricinus communis); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins; plant also causes dermatitis.

CATCLAW (Acacia greggi); foliage, plant is cyanogenetic.

CELANDINE, CELANDINE POPPY (Chelidonium majus); entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloids chelidonine, chelerithrine, and protopine; plant also causes dermatitis.

Celastrus scandens (BITTERSWEET); entire plant; plant is reputed to be toxic.

Cephalanthus occidentalis (BUTTONBUSH); entire plant, esp. leaves; plant is reputed to be toxic.

Cercocarpus montanus (MOUNTAIN-MAHOGANY); wilted leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.

Cestrum spp. (DAY-BLOOMING JESSAMINE, JASMINE, NIGHT-BLOOMING JESSAMINE); fruit, sap; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids; nervous system affected by atropine-like toxins.

CHEESEWEED (Malva parviflora); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Chelidonium majus (CELANDINE, CELANDINE POPPY); entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloids chelidonine, chelerithrine, and protopine; plant also causes dermatitis.

Chenopodium spp. (GOOSEFOOT, LAMB'S QUARTERS, PIGWEED, WORMSEED); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

CHERRIES (Prunus spp.); kernels in pits; plant is cyanogenetic.

CHERRY LAUREL (Prunus sp.); entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic.

CHICKWEED (Stellaria media); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

CHINABERRY TREE (Melia azedarach); fruit, bark; plant contains convulsants.

CHINESE LANTERN (Physalis spp.); unripe berries; gastrointestinal tract affect by solanine glycoalkaloids.

CHIVES (Allium spp.); bulbs, bulblets, flowers, stems; toxins affect gastrointestinal tract; plant also causes dermatitis.

CHRISTMAS-BERRY (Heteromeles artbutifolia); leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.

CHRISTMAS ROSE (Helleborus niger); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by the cardiac glycosides helleborin and helleborein; plant also causes dermatitis.

Cicuta spp. (WATER HEMLOCK); entire plant, esp. roots; nervous system affected by the convulsant cicutoxin.

Cirsium arvense (CANADA THISTLE); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Claviceps spp. (ERGOT); an ascomycetous fungus which grows on small grain (e.g., rye); also contains the alkaloid indole.

Clematis spp. (CLEMATIS, TRAVELLER'S JOY, VIRGIN'S BOWER); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.

Cleome serrulata (ROCKY MT. BEE PLANT); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

CLIMBING LILY (Gloriosa spp.); entire plant, esp. tubers; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin colchicine.

CLOVERS (Trifolium spp.); plant causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis (also see WHITE CLOVER).

COAL-OIL BRUSH (Teradymia glabrata); leaves; plant is hepatogenic.

COAST GOLDENBUSH (Haplopappus venetus); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

COCKLEBUR (Xanthium orientate); leaves at sprouted two-leaf stage, germinating seeds; plant contains hydroquinone; also causes dermatitis.

COFFEE SENNA (Cassia occidentalis); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.

COFFEEWEED (Sesbania spp.); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

Colchicum autumnale (AUTUMN CROCUS, MEADOW SAFFRON); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin colchicine and other alkaloids; plant also causes dermatitis.

Colocasia esculenta (ELEPHANT'S EAR, TARO); leaves; mouth irritated by plant raphides.

COLUMBINE (Aquilegia vulgaris); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by plant toxins.

COMMON LANTANA (Lantana camara); immature berries; nervous system affected by the atropine-like toxin lantodene; plant is also hepatogenic.

COMMON PRIVET (Ligustrum vulgare); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the glycoside ligustrin.

COMMON VETCH (Vicia sativa); seeds, moldy parts; plant is cyanogenetic; plant also causes photosensitization.

Conium maculatum (HEMLOCK, POISON HEMLOCK); entire plant, esp. roots and seeds; nervous system affected by alkaloids including coniine, coniceine, and conidrine; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.

Convallaria majalis (LILY-OF-THE-VALLEY); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides convallarin and convallamarin.

COONTIE (Zamia pumila); roots, trunk; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by plant toxins.

COPPERWEED (Oxytenia acerosa); leaves; toxic principle unknown.

CORAL PLANT (Jatropha multifida); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins and cathartic oils; plant also causes dermatitis.

Coriaria myrtifolia (no trivial name in U.S.); fruit; plant contains convulsants.

CORNCOCKLE (Agrostemma githago); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

Corydalis spp. (FITWEED); entire plant; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline.

Corynocarpus laevigatus (no trivial [common] name in U.S.);fruit; plant contains convulsants.

COWCOCKLE (Saponaria vaccaria); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

COWSLIP (Caltha palustris); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin protoanemonin; plant also causes dermatitis.

COYOTILLO (Karawinskia humboldtiana); fruit; nervous system affected by plant toxins.

CRAB'S EYE (Abrus precatorius); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.

CREEPING CHARLIE (Glechoma hederacea); plant contains a variety of volatile oils.

Crotalaria spp. (RATTLEBOX); entire plant; pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (Budd-Chiari syndrome) in humans.

CROWFOOTS (Ranunculus spp.); gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by the toxin protoanemonin; plant also causes dermatitis.

CROWNBEARD (Verbesina encelioides); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

CROWN FLOWERS (Calotropis spp.) entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by cardiac glycosides.

Crytostegia spp. (RUBBER VINE, PURPLE ALLAMANDA); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by digitalis-like glycoside.

CUCKOO-PINT (Arum maculatum); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; mouth irritated by plant raphides; plant also causes dermatitis.

CULTIVATED RAPE (Brassica napus); plant is hepatogenic.

CURCAS BEAN (Jatropha curcas); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins and cathartic oils; plant also causes dermatitis.

Cypripedium spp. (LADY SLIPPER, MOCCASIN FLOWER, SHOWY LADY SLIPPER, YELLOW LADY SLIPPER); plant causes dermatitis.

Cytisus scoparious (SCOTCH BROOM); seeds; plant contains quinolizidine alkaloid toxins.

 


DAFFODIL (Narcissus spp.); bulbs; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.

Daphne spp. (DAPHNE, MEZEREON, SPURGE LAUREL, WOOD LAUREL); entire plant, esp. fruit and seeds; gastrointestinal tract and kidneys affected by coumarin glycosides; plant also causes dermatitis.

Datura stramonium (DEVIL'S TRUMPET, JIMSON WEED, THORNAPPLE); entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloids atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.

DAY-BLOOMING JESSAMINE (Cestrum diurnum); fruit, sap; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids; nervous system affected by atropine-like toxins.

DEADLY NIGHTSHADE (Atropa belladonna); entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloids jasciamine, atropine, and belladonnin.

DEATH CAMAS (Zigadenus spp.); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by alkaloid toxins.

Delphinium spp. (LARKSPUR); cardiovascular system affected by alkaloids including delphinine; plant also causes dermatitis.

DESERT ROSE (Adenium spp.); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by digitalis-like glycosides.

DEVIL'S CLUB (Echinopanax horridum); plant causes dermatitis.

DEVIL'S TRUMPET (Datura stramonium); entire plant; nervous system affected by the alkaloids atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.

DEVIL'S TURNIP (Bryonia dioica); gastrointestinal tract affected by the glycosides bryonin and bryonidin; plant also causes dermatitis.

Dicentra spp. (BLEEDING HEART, DUTCHMAN'S BREECHES, GOLDEN EAR-DROPS, SQUIRREL CORN, STAGGER WEED, STEER'S HEAD); entire plant, esp. bulbs; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline; plant also causes dermatitis.

Dieffenbachia spp. (DUMBCANE); leaves; mouth irritated by plant raphides; plant also causes dermatitis.

Digitalis purpurea (FOXGLOVE, PURPLE FOXGLOVE);

entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides digitalin and digitoxin; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

Dionaea sp. (VENUS FLYTRAP); entire plant.

DOCKS (Rumex spp.); leaves; plant contains soluble oxalates and may contain toxic levels of nitrates: plant also causes dermatitis.

DOGBANE (Apocynum cannabinum); plant contains cardiac glycosides.

DOG HOBBLE (Leucothoe spp.); leaves, nectar; cardiovascular and nervous systems affected by plant toxins.

DOLL'S EYES (Actaea spp.); foliage, berries, roots; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by the toxin protoanemonin.

DUMBCANE (Dieffenbachia spp.); leaves; mouth irritated by plant raphides; plant also causes dermatitis.

DUTCHMAN'S BREECHES (Dicentra cucullaria); entire plant, esp. bulbs; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline; plant also causes dermatitis.



EAGLE FERN (Pteridium sp.); fronds; plant contains thiaminase.

Echinochloa crusgalli (BARNYARD GRASS); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Echinopanax horridum (DEVIL'S CLUB); plant causes dermatitis.

Echium vulgare (VIPER'S BUGLOSS); entire plant; pyrrolizidine alkaloid causes hepatic veno-occlusive disease (Budd-Chiari syndrome) in humans.

ELDERBERRY (Sambucus spp.); entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic and may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

ELEPHANT'S EAR (Alocasia sp., Colocasia esculenta); leaves, stems; mouth irritated by plant raphides.

ENGLISH IVY (Hedera helix); berries, leaves; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins; plant also causes dermatitis.

Equisetum spp. (FOXTAILS, HORSETAILS, SCOURING RUSH); stems; toxic principles uncertain; fungus growing on plant may cause toxicity.

ERGOT (Claviceps spp.); an ascomycetous fungus which grows on small grain (e.g., rye); also contains the alkaloid indole.

Eriobotrya japonica (LOQUAT, JAPAN PLUM); kernel in pit; plant is cyanogenetic.

Euonymus spp. (BURNING BUSH, SPINDLE TREE, STRAWBERRY BUSH, WAHOO); fruit; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides evobioside, evomonoside, and evonoside.

Eupatorium spp. (JOE-PYE WEED, THOROUGHWORT, WHITE SNAKEROOT); leaves; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Euphorbia spp. (EUPHORBIA, MILK BUSH, POINSETTIA, SNOW-ON-THE-MOUNTAIN, SPURGES); latex; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin euphorbin; may contain toxic levels of nitrates; plant also causes dermatitis.

EUROPEAN BEECH (Fagus sylvatica); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

EUROPEAN MISTLETOE (Viscum album); leaves, stems; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins.

 


Fagopyrum spp. (BUCKWHEAT, INDIA WHEAT); plant causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis.

Fagus sylvatica (EUROPEAN BEECH); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

FALSE HELLEBORE (Veratrum spp.); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by alkaloid toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.

FALSE JESSAMINE (Gelsemium sempervirens); leaves, roots; plant contains convulsants including indole; plant also causes dermatitis.

FALSE SAGO PALM (Zamia pumila); trunk, roots; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by plant toxins.

FANWEED (Thlaspi arvensi); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by mustard oil.

FESCUE, TALL (Festuca arundinacea); considered nontoxic unless contaminated with ERGOT (Claviceps sp.) or other fungi.

Festuca arundinacea (FESCUE, TALL); considered nontoxic unless contaminated with ERGOT (Claviceps sp.) or other fungi.

FETTERBUSH (Pieris spp.); leaves, nectar; cardiovascular and nervous systems affected by plant toxins.

FIDDLENECK (Amsinckia intermedia); seed-like nutlets; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

FIREBALL (Kochia scoparia; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

FITWEED (Corydalis spp.); entire plant; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline.

FLAG (Iris spp.); rootstocks; toxins affect gastrointestinal tract; plant also causes dermatitis.

FLAX (Linum usitatissimus); entire plant, esp. immature seed pods; plant is cyanogenetic and goitrogenic; may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

Florensia cernua (BLACK BRUSH, TARBUSH); fruit; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins.

Florestina tripteris (FLORESTINA); entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic.

FLORIDA ARROWROOT (Zamia pumila); trunk, roots; gastrointestinal tract and nervous system affected by plant toxins.

FLY-POISON (Amianthemum muscaetoxicum); leaves, underground parts of plant; alkaloids cause respiratory failure.

FOOL'S PARSLEY (Aethusa cynapium); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by alkaloid toxins.

FOUR O'CLOCK (Mirabilis sp.); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by the alkaloid trigonelline.

FOWL MANNAGRASS (Glyceria striate); entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic.

FOXGLOVE (Digitalis purpurea); entire plant; cardiovascular system affected by the glycosides digitalin and digitoxin; gastrointestinal tract affected by saponins.

FOXTAILS (Equisetum spp.); stems; toxic principles uncertain; fungus growing on plant may cause toxicity.

FRIJOLITO (Sophora secundiflora); seeds; nervous system affected by nicotine-like, quinolizidine alkaloids.

Fritillaria meleagris (SNAKE'S HEAD BULB); cardiovascular system affected by alkaloid toxins.

 


Galanthus nivalis (SNOWDROP); gastrointestinal tract affected by the alkaloids lycorine and galantamine.

GARLIC (Allium spp.); bulbs, bulblets, flowers, stems; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins.

Gelsemium sempervirens (FALSE JESSAMINE, YELLOW JESSAMINE); flowers, leaves, roots; plant contains convulsants including indole; plant also causes dermatitis.

GILL-OVER-THE-GROUND (Glechoma hederacea); plant contains a variety of volatile oils.

Glechoma hederacea (CREEPING CHARLIE, GILLOVER-THE-GROUND, GROUND IVY); plant contains a variety of volatile oils.

Gloriosa spp. (CLIMBING LILY, GLORIOSA LILY, GLORY LILY); entire plant, esp. tubers; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin colchicine.

GLORY LILY (Gloriosa spp.); entire plant, esp. tubers; gastrointestinal tract affected by the toxin colchicine.

Glyceria striata (FOWL MANNAGRASS); entire plant; plant is cyanogenetic.

Glycine max (SOYBEAN); plant is goitrogenic and may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

GOATHEAD (Tribulus terrestris); plant is hepatogenic and may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

GOAT WEED (Hypericum perforatum); entire plant; plant causes photosensitization and contact dermatitis.

GOLDENCHAINTREE (Laburnum x watereri); entire plant, esp. seeds; nervous system affected by the alkaloid cytisine.

GOLDEN EAR-DROPS (Dicentra chrysantha); entire plant, esp. bulbs; plant contains convulsants including isoquinoline; plant also causes dermatitis.

GOLDENRODS (Aplopappus spp.); leaves; plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

GOLDEN SHOWER (Cassia fistula); pulp of pods, leaves, bark; plant contains cathartic toxins.

GOLDEN TRUMPET VINE (Allamanda cathartica); bark, leaves, fruit, seeds, sap; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; plant also causes dermatitis.

GOLDENWEEDS (Oonopsis spp.); entire plant; plant may absorb toxic levels of selenium.

GOOSEFOOT (Chenopodium glaucum); plant may contain toxic levels of nitrates.

GOOSEGRASS (Triglochin maritima); leaves; plant is cyanogenetic.

GOUT STALK (Jatropha podagrica); seeds; gastrointestinal tract affected by toxalbumins and cathartic oils; plant also causes dermatitis.

GREASEWOOD (Sarcobatus vermiculatus); plant contains soluble oxalates; also causes dermatitis.

GREEN DRAGON (Arisaema dracontium); entire plant; gastrointestinal tract affected by plant toxins; mouth irritated by plant raphides; plant also causes dermatitis.

GROUND CHERRY (Physalis spp.); unripe berries; gastrointestinal tract affected by solanine glycoalkaloids.

GROUND IVY (Glechoma hederacea); plant contains a variety of volatile oils.

GROUNDSEL (Senecio spp.); entire plant; pyrrolizidine alkaloid causes hepatic veno-occlusive disease (Budd-Chiari syndrome) in humans.

GUAJILLO (Acacia ber landieri); foliage; plant is cyanogenetic.

Gymnocladus dioicus (KENTUCKY COFFEE TREE); seeds;